The Evidence from Sruti for Lord Caitanya
Svetasvatara Upanisad 3.12
The Personality of Godhead, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, is brilliantly effulgent and imperishable like molten gold. He is the Supreme Controller. He controls the modes of goodness and through sankirtana bestows spiritual intelligent on the living beings. In the guise of a sannyasi, He is the source of spiritual purity and of liberation. He is therefore known as "Mahäprabhu".
Evidence From Bhagavatam for Lord Caitanya
In the age of Kali, Krsna appears in a golden form, chanting the two syllables krs-na. He descends along with His weapons, limbs, saktis, and eternal confidential associates. Those with intelligence worship Him with the sankirtana yajna.
This boy, Krsna, has three other colors: white, red and yellow, as He appears in different ages. Now, in this Dvapara-yuga, he has appeared in a transcendental blackish color.
[Prahlada said] O Krsna, in this way You appear in various incarnations: as a human being, an animal, a great saint, a demigod, a fish, or a tortoise, thus maintaining the entire creation in different planetary systems. In this way, according to the age, You protect the principles of religion, but, O Mahaprabhu, in the age of Kali, You do not assert Yourself as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Because Your incarnation is hidden in the age of Kali You are known as Triyuga, or the Lord who manifests His supremacy in only three ages.
Evidence From Mahabharata for Sri Caitanya
Mahabharata, Dan-dharma ch. 149
When Krsna appears as Lord Gauranga, in His early pastimes His complexion is golden (suvarna-varna), His limbs are the color of molten white gold (hemanga), His body is extremely beautiful (varangaç), and He is decorated with sandalwood pulp (candanangadi).
Sri Caitanya accepts sannyasa (sannyasa-krit), and shows equanimity (sama). He is peaceful (santa). His mind is always fixed on Krsna, and thus He is nistha, or fixed, in performing the great sacrifice of holy name of Krsna. He silences the non-devotees and impersonalists who are opposed to the service of the Lord, by promoting the cause of devotion. Thus He distributes real peace. He is therefore an abode of the highest spiritual peace and devotion.
Evidence of the Puranas for Lord Caitanya
C.c. Adi 3.83[The Supreme Lord said to Vyasadeva] O learned brahmana, sometimes I accepted the renounced order of life to induce the fallen people of the age of Kali to accept devotional service to the Lord.
O best of the brahmanas. My disguised form is eternal. In this way, with My own form hidden from ordinary sight I take the form of a devotee and appear among the people in general in order to establish and protect religious principles.
The Version of the Gosvamis
I take shelter of Sri Krisna Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who is Krisna Himself, thinking of Himself. He is internally Kåñëa - blackish - but externally, He appears in golden complexion. In this age of Kali, Krisna appears as Krisna Caitanya, simultaneously manifesting His eternal associates, opulences, expansions, and incarnations. In this way, He preaches the process of Krisna Consciousness by performing sankirtana.
Gauranga’s Tattva, Näma, Rüpa and Lila.
C.c. Mad. 19.53
His nature (tattva), is that He is Krisna Himself. His name (nama) is Krisna Caitanya. His form (rupa) is golden. His quality (guna) is that He is the most magnanimous of all incarnations. His pastime (lila) is to distribute the highest love of Godhead - krisna-prema. I offer my obeisances unto that most generous Lord, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
Lord Gauranga’s Preaching Pastimes
C.c. Antya 5.84-87
To vanquish the false pride of so-called sannyasis and learned scholars, He spread real religious principles, even through a shudra. Lord Caitanya preached about devotional service, ecstatic love, and the Absolute Truth by making Ramananda Raya, a grihastha from a low family, the speaker. Then the Lord, an exalted brahmana sannyasi, and Pradyumna Misra, the purified brahmana, both heard from Ramananda Raya. The Lord exhibited the glories of the Holy Name of Krisna through Haridasa Thakura, who was born in a muslim family. Similarly, He exhibited the essence of devotional service through Sanatana Gosvami, who was almost converted to Islam. The Lord also fully exhibited the ecstatic love and transcendental pastimes of Vrindavana through Srila Rupa Gosvami. Considering all this, who can understand the deep plans of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu?
Gauranga’s Principle and Ultimate Goals
Cc. Adi 4.36-41
Just as Krisna appeared in order to manifest His Vrindavana pastimes and His suppression of demons was incidental in the same way promulgating the dharma for the age is an incidental reason for Lord Caitanya’s appearance. When He desired to appear for another reason, the time for promulgating the religion of the age also rose. Thus with two intentions, the Lord appeared with His devotees and tasted the nectar of prema along with which the congregational chanting of the holy name. He spread sankirtana even among untouchables. He wove a wreath of the holy name and prema with which He garlanded the entire world. In this way, assuming the sentiment of a devotee, He preached devotional service while practicing it Himself.
Sri Gauranga’s Eternal Reason for Appearing
C.c. Adi 1.4
May that Lord who is known as the son of Srimati Sacidevi be transcendentally situated in the inner-most chambers of your heart. Resplended with the radiance of molten gold He has appeared in the age of Kali by His causeless mercy to bestow what no incarnation ever offered before - the most sublime and radiant spiritual knowledge of the mellow taste of His service.
Lord Gauranga’s Confidential Reason for Appearing
Cc. Adi 1.6
Desiring to understand the glory of Srimati Radharani’s love, the wonderful qualities in Him that She alone relishes through Her love, and the happiness she feels when she realizes the sweetness of His Love, Lord Hari, richly endowed with Her emotions, appear from the womb of Sacidevi as the moon appears from the ocean.
Internally He has the Mood of Sri Radha, Externally He Preaches the holy Name
Cc. Adi 4.220
Lord Caitanya appeared with the sentiments of Sri Radha. He preached the dharma of this age, the chanting of the holly name of Krisna, and pure love of Godhead (Krisna-prema).
The Pastimes of Sri Caitanya are Eternal
C. Bhag. Mad. 23.513
As yet, no one can completely see the opulences of all the pastimes Lord Caitanya performed, because they are without limit in time and space. They are unlimited and eternal.
Gauranga is not the Enjoyer of the Rasa Dance
C. Bhag. 15.28-31
The Lord was apt to indulge in indiscriminate, merciful behavior towards all, except that He never looked at woman, even by a sidelong glance. It is known to all the world that He didn’t even allow the name of a women to enter His ear. Those who are His real devotees, therefore, never address Sri Gauranga as "Sri Gauranga-nagari", or the enjoyer of women. Although all forms of praise are applicable to the Lord, the wise sing only what is in accordance with His nature.
The Glories of the Mercy of Gaura-Nitai
C.c. Adi 8.31,32
If one only chants with some slight faith the holy names of the Lord Caitanya and Lord Nityananda, very quickly he is cleansed of all offenses. Thus, as soon as he chants the Hare Krisna Maha-mantra, he feels the ecstasy of love of Godhead. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the independent Supreme Personality of Godhead is very magnanimous. Unless one worships Him, one can never liberated.
Gauranga’s Teachings in a Nutshell
Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura
It is the conclusive opinion of Lord Caitanya that Lord Sri Krisna, who is Vrajendra-nandana, is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, the topmost worshipable Deity; Vrindavana-dhama which is an expansion of Krisna and non-different from Him is the highest worshipable abode; the gopis are the highest example of the worship of Sri Krisna; Srimad-Bhagavatam is the spotless evidence for knowing the absolute truth; krisna-premais the fifth and highest goal of life.. These are the teachings of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in a nutshell.